Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Tragedy Of The Holocaust - 1063 Words

Treated like dirt through a majority of his life is all Shep Zitler knew, he was born into a religious family and a tough culture surrounding him, the Holocaust effected his life to the extreme but along with all his suffering and the tragedies in his life the Holocaust did not take him. He stuck by his believes and made it out alive. Born in Vilna with pride, it gave an eminent name to the Jewish people. He has four sisters, Rachel, Sonia, Doba and _. Also his mother and father, nephews and nieces. All but Rachel and he died of the Holocaust. In Vilna the Jews lived on one side of the street and the Poles lived on the other side. Vilna had many known Jewish organizations such as the Bund, the left Zionists, the right Zionists, the middle Zionists, the Communists, the religious party. All one family could belong to various organizations. Which brought a lot of conflict between Jewish Families and their point of views. His oldest sister Sonia married a famous Professor Morgenstern who taught Polish literature at the Epstein-Szpeizer Gymnasium. His daughter Tzerna was the first grandchild in their family. Doba had married during the war. Her husband and she were living in the Vilna ghetto. Her brother-in-law from Israel, was a member of the partisans. Both his wife and Doba had given birth to baby boys around the s ame time. A Polish peasant was agreed to hide the two babies. The babies could not be circumcised because they could be identified Jewish and the other baby wasShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1708 Words   |  7 PagesThe Holocaust is, by definition, a tragedy. HaShoah, the Hebrew word for the Holocaust, translates to â€Å"the catastrophe.† The very notion of humor during the Holocaust may seem incongruous, appalling, and wildly inappropriate. Tragedy is seen as serious, while comedy is typically lighthearted in nature. However, there is precedence for ‘comic relief,’ the presence of humor in tragedy with the desired effect to relieve tension. Frequently, comic relief is used so that tragedy does not overshadow usRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust945 Words   |  4 PagesSince the terrorist attack on Paris, to the natural disasters in Haiti; there have been a variety of tragic events that have occurred throughout history across the world. Perha ps one main tragedy that leaves people feeling baffled is the Holocaust. Eric Lichtblau described the Holocaust in his article, The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking, as a genocide in which Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany and its associates killed approximately six million Jewish people because the Nazis believed that exterminatingRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1599 Words   |  7 Pagesassigned Adolf Hitler as their chancellor. Once Hitler had finally reached power he set out to complete one goal, create a Greater Germany free from the Jews (â€Å"The reasons for the Holocaust,† 2009). This tragedy is known today as, â€Å"The Holocaust,† that explains the terrors of our histories past. The face of the Holocaust, master of death, and leader of Germany; Adolf Hitler the most deceitful, powerful, well spoken, and intelligent person that acted as the key to this mass murder. According to a researchRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust922 Words   |  4 PagesFr om the terrorist attack on Paris, to the natural disasters in Haiti; there have been a variety of tragic events that have occurred throughout history across the world. Perhaps one main tragedy that leaves people feeling baffled is the Holocaust. Eric Lichtblau described the Holocaust in his article, The Holocaust Just Got More Shocking, as a genocide in which Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany and its associates killed around six million Jewish people because the Nazis believed that exterminating the JewishRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1540 Words   |  7 Pagesdiverse in the cause; it is the indifference and ruthlessness that an individual portrays. This sort of behavior accommodates society and encourages people to accept and follow its routine and principles, such as the events that took place during the Holocaust. During the time period of 1933 to 1945, Adolf Hitler, an Austrian World War I veteran, decided to partake in twisted behavior. Hitler believed that in order to do his nation justice, the nation needed an ethnic cleansing. This ethnic cleansingRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust3499 Words   |  14 Pageshowever, the holocaust seems to be the huge adversity to overcome. The holocaust has taught the society many things; although the world has not exactly learned from the experiences entirely. The holocaust is a learning experience still today, so that this generation will not repeat the same drastic measures. Many people today seem to think that the holocaust never happened; in spite of this, there are those that disagree. I have had the opportunity to listen to a firsthand account of the tragedy that happenedRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1415 Words   |  6 PagesPrior to the holocaust, however, he exhibits none of these characteristics. He was kind, wealthy, and uncommonly resourceful, and his marriage to Anja was filled with compassion, intimacy, and love. Where now Vladek is now stubborn, irritable, and almost comically st ingy with his money. His experiences in the Holocaust undoubtedly played a role in these dramatic personality changes. It wasn’t until the war started that Vladek got a little more precautious about a few things. Whenever a bad thingRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust Essay1118 Words   |  5 PagesWithin the era of 1933 to 1945, races struggled through times of gloom, torment and hopelessness. The Holocaust was hard on numerous people, with little survivors and still influences individuals present lives today. The majority of the anguish was brought about as a result of one man’s conviction, that had the capacity to impact a whole nation. The holocaust was a genocide that was exclusively centered around hatred found in Germany. Propaganda was one of the main causes, which conditioned the peopleRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1034 Words   |  5 PagesIn every moment, people make choices that impact society, continually shaping history. During the Holocaust, w hen the Nazi Party incarcerated millions of Jews, ordinary European citizens and their everyday decisions and shaped history through an amass of cause and effects. Their decisions were greatly influenced by their understanding of the universe of obligation, which sociologist Helen Fein defines as â€Å"the circle of individuals and groups ‘toward whom obligations are owed, to whom rules applyRead MoreThe Tragedy Of The Holocaust1970 Words   |  8 PagesThe Holocaust, 9/11, wars and assassinations are common events that come to mind when thinking about history. These events tend to make people think that mankind is evil and will always choose to be evil. However, when looking at the people behind the evil doings, are they really killing for a selfish reason? Mankind will always do good for their nation, no matter the cost. While most powerful leaders end up hurting many people, they either have good intentions behind the mask of people suffering

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Summary On The Allegory Of Shirley Jacksons The Lottery

Shirley Jackson’s story â€Å"The Lottery† serves as an allegory regarding humankinds inherent to be cruel and society’s ability to inure to violence. The author’s use of a third-person dramatic narrative combined with strong themes, symbols and irony clearly supports the lesson Jackson was trying to portray. Jackson’s short story shows how easy it is to be hostile when a group of villagers with a herd mentality blindly follow an outdated tradition and that evil knows no boundaries. Jackson starts the story out depicting the day as â€Å"clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day; the flowers were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green† (Jackson 1). The village men were â€Å"speaking of planting and rain,†¦show more content†¦This statement supports what Jackson was trying to convey because rather than the villagers knowing the meaning behind the ritual, they can only remember the murderous, violent p art of it. This ceremony had become so customary and routine that even the children had made â€Å"piles of stones† ready to participate in the lottery. Children are supposed to be considered innocent and uncorrupt but in this story it just goes to show that cruelty is inherent. Jackson’s story also displays the theme of hypocrisy. The author uses the story’s target Tessie Hutchinson to represent that theme. The audience could assume that Tessie is well known village woman who only any normal day would partake in this event. When Tessie discovers her fate as the winner she becomes self-serving saying â€Å"it isn’t fair, it isn’t right† (Jackson 7). It is duplicitous because if she was not the victim then she would have no objections, but now that she is the fatality the lottery suddenly is corrupt. The author aimed to indicate that society has a predisposition to become habituated to unkind things so long as they believe they will not be ne gatively affected by it. The author uses contextual symbols and symbols in general to support â€Å"The Lottery’s† meaning. Mr. Summers name is an example of a contextual symbol. The word summer would make the audience think of new beginnings and positivity. Mr. Summers isShow MoreRelatedThe Lottery, By Shirley Jackson850 Words   |  4 Pages  «The lottery » by Shirley Jackson provides a good example how superstitions of people from a tiny town affect on those traditions. This story shows dark side of Humanity. Whole community entrusts their life with a small black box. The allegory can confuse you, because the main purpose of the  «lottery » is kill one of the citizens for a strange false belief. To my mind, the author tried to explain why new generation sometimes shouldn’t continue the weird and cruel traditions.  «The lottery » is anRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Lottery By Shirley Jackson844 Words   |  4 PagesThe Response Essay on  «The lottery » What is the difference between superstitions and traditions?  «The lottery » by Shirley Jackson provides a good example of how people’s superstitions from a tiny town affect those traditions. This story shows the dark side of Humanity. The whole community entrusts their lifes to a small black box. The allegory can confuse you, because the main purpose of the lottery kills one of the citizens for a strange false belief. To my mind, the author tried to explain whyRead MoreANALIZ TEXT INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS28843 Words   |  116 Pagesas description, dialogue and action. Other incidents will be given relatively less emphasis through deliberate subordination. In the latter case, the author may shorten the dramatic elements of the scene or eliminate them altogether in favour of summary – in favour of telling, rather than showing. All these episodes, major or minor, need to advance the plot in precisely the same way or at the same pace, although the reader does hav e the right to expect that each will contribute in some way to a completed

Explain what is meant in the Bible by the phrase “God is good.” Free Essays

A) Explain what is meant in the Bible by the phrase â€Å"God is good. † Many worshippers of God like to believe that he is intrinsically good; this means that he is good in himself. People try to argue this by the Bible and through many things in the Bible such as the 10 commandments and the creation of the universe as well as the many miracles of the Saints. We will write a custom essay sample on Explain what is meant in the Bible by the phrase â€Å"God is good.† or any similar topic only for you Order Now God is seen to act morally good as he creates a world which is seen to be good, therefore he must be. â€Å"God saw that it was good, and it was good. † The Ten Commandments show us what good is according to God. The Ten Commandments explain to us how we should act and what our religious and social duties should be. God could be said to be showing his love for this through these laws. Another common biblical image of God is that of a judge to whom we all answer to, however, if God is seen as a judge â€Å"Psalms 75:7 But God is the Judge; He puts down one and exalts another,† then he must be trying to divide the good from the bad, we could see this as God trying to protect the people who worship him from the sinners, however it is hard to distinguish the bad from the good. The Ten Commandments offer a guide for this, so that we can see what is wrong and what is right, so therefore we could see this as a good act of God as throughout the Bible God demonstrates his desire for justice for his people. People may follow the Ten Commandments because they are scared of the possibility of going to Hell or that they are so full of faith for the Lord that they follow them without thinking, that if it is the wish of God then they must act and follow these rules. The Old Testament displays God as being vengeful and punishing those who sin, whereas in the New he is seen as being forgiving and loving. These are two sides of God which keep people obeying the Ten Commandments, as there are two opinions of him, one that he is punishing and the other that he is forgiving. God also punishes those because he loves all people and love involves showing another what they have done is wrong so they can learn from it. God could be seen as good, as even though he punishes those who have sinned, if they repent they can go to Heaven, which means he gives everyone a chance. God is a transcendent being therefore some people believe that we cannot  understand God’s actions as it is far too complex for us to comprehend. This is written in the Bible with the story of Issac and Abraham. In Genesis 22 as a test for Abraham God says to him â€Å"Take your son, your only son, Issac, whom you love, and go to the region of Moriah. Sacrifice him there as a burnt offering. † Abraham responded to God’s command with immediate obedience. Christians believe that if we obey God without question and trust that His plan is best we exalt His qualities and praise Him. Due to Abraham’s unwavering trust and faith in God provides Christians with an example they must follow. As God saw Abraham’s belief in Him an Angel came down to Abraham and told him he could sacrifice a ram instead. God uses Abraham’s faith as an example of the type of faith required for salvation. This type of faith in the Lord is the basis for the Christian religion and that we should follow in this way when we receive the Christian faith for the sacrifice God made for our sins, Jesus Christ. We may not know what He has planned but that it must be for the greater good so we must follow His wishes. Not only do people have faith in God, but in the Bible and that we are lead to believe God is good and nothing else. Jesus Christ preformed many miracles in the Bible such as feeding the 5,000, raising a widow’s son from the dead and healing a paralysed man as well as many more. Not only that but there are over 10,000 people that have been canonised including St. Joan of Arc, St. Francis of Assisi and St. Valentine. To become a Saint you have to perform a miracle and it be recognised by the Catholic Church. Miracles bring much happiness and joy to people and the act can rarely be explained, surely these acts are a great act of God and must be good if they bring happiness. People also believe God is good because he keeps human kind in some sort of order. Law breaking is bad therefore we are punished if we do break the law. The law is there to make us be good individuals and do the right thing according to society. When we follow the law we are told we are being good and are rewarded with a chance to go to Heaven, this is told to us in the Bible. A chance at getting to Heaven is an incentive for us to do good deeds and abide the law. We then read from this that if we are good we are rewarded and if we are bad we are punished which keeps people abiding by the law and why so many people over thousands of years have been scared at the prospect of going to Hell. People could view this as God keeping us in line and not letting us stray and do the wrong thing; in essence he is saving us from going to Hell by creating laws and putting them in place so we know what is right and wrong. In conclusion, the phrase â€Å"God is good† in the Bible means that God in himself is good, he can never be otherwise as he is just good. His acts are good and the punishment he inflicts on others is so they change their ways and realise what they’ve done and repent their sins. He does this out of love for every human as we are created in his image and he wants us all to be cleansed of sin and go to Heaven. He uses the Ten Commandments to set these guidelines for us and help us on our journey to Heaven as well as showing us some of his goodness with the miracles that can occur in this world. The miracles that we hear of in the Bible make many people wonder what Heaven is actually like if something so great is described and it makes people seek out repentance as well as being good ourselves so we are allowed to go to Heaven. B) â€Å"It is difficult to believe in a God who is perfectly good. † (10) Many sceptics of God and the Christian faith think that it’s hard to believe there is a God that is good in himself and can’t be anything but that. Not only that but many people also believe that he is not good, as so much punishment is shown in the Old Testament and the idea that God created Hell in the first place to punish people who sin. People argue that if God is omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent and omnibenevolent he would not let natural disasters to happen, even though Christians say natural disasters happen to punish humankind for our sins. The Lord God of the Scriptures says this about himself. â€Å"For the Lord your God is a consuming fire, a jealous God.† As well as this, it is also written in Psalm 5:5 â€Å"You hate all who do wrong,† therefore it is hard to believe that God is a forgiving and loving God who accepts everyone, if he hates all who do wrong, even if they are regretful about it. In many different scriptures God is described as wrathful and punishes those who do wrong, this was most likely written to stop people from sinning and obey the 10 Commandments. This still does not make people want to believe in him, however, and many people question whether God can be perfectly good if he is punishing those who do the slightest thing wrong even if it was to help someone else. If God is being described as jealous and hateful, then we can deduce that he is not all good as he has a capacity to hate, which is seen as negative by most. He is also described as warmongering as he constantly is battling evil and Satan. People could say these wars are necessary and that he must protect us from Hell and the Devil, however in the New Testament it completely goes against this describing him as peaceful and forgiving so it is difficult to know whether he is punishing the sinners for the rest of humankind’s benefit or that he is just being hateful towards anyway who slightly steps out of line. Moreover, the story of Abraham and Issac also challenge our idea of God being all peaceful as he asks Abraham to sacrifice his son which he is willing to do. A lot of non-believers would ask why God asks this in the first place as it seems completely morally wrong to tell a father to kill his only child. Christians argue this was to test Abraham’s faith in God, but surely Abraham would feel conflicted about doing this if he cared for Issac at all. This could tell people who do not believe in God that God almost corrupts people who worship him as they think that is the most important thing to do in life and nothing else. This could be an example of one of the ways God isn’t perfectly good if he commands the people who follow him to kill their own children to prove they have faith in him. Not only that but if there is evil in the world to start with, God must have created this evil, therefore how can he be all good? God created Hell and all his Angels, Lucifer, one of his angels was cast out from Heaven and sent to Hell where he became known as the Devil. God did not create evil as nothing evil can come from God. Satan and other demons were at first good angels, created by God, but they became evil of their own free will, given by God. This â€Å"fall† was a free choice of these created spirits, who rejected God and his reign. Therefore Christians would say that it was not God’s fault however he created Heaven and Hell therefore he must have known or considered there to be some evil in the world. Many people can see why Christians believe in God, that there are so many different texts saying he is our protector and that he loves humankind and is forgiving and all-knowing. However I do agree with the statement â€Å"It is difficult to believe in a God who is perfectly good,† as there are many texts that also say he is vengeful, wrathful and warmongering. It says he is hateful and that he condemns sinners so it’s hard to believe in a God when there are two sides to the story. When there are stories of God commanding people to kill their children to prove their faith and that God created Hell in the first place. Christians like to believe in God for security as they believe him to be intrinsically good, but how do they know this is true when there is so much punishment and hate in some of the scriptures describing him. This is why many people are sceptical that he exists and if he is actually all good. How to cite Explain what is meant in the Bible by the phrase â€Å"God is good.†, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Violence In Schools Essays (497 words) - Crime, Violence

Violence In Schools Violence in schools has increased throughout the nation in the last few years. This has caused many problems among students, families, faculty, and residents that populate the surrounding area. The cause of violence can be blamed on a variety of things, such as drugs, gangs, and the unstable mentality of adolescents. A combination of these three factors leads to violence in the schools. Just think of all the school shootings that have happened in the past few years. Most of these have been because the student could not handle the rejection of their classmates and they took out their anger through violence. Drugs and gangs have also been on the increase in the past few years. More people are selling and buying drugs, and getting involved with the gang mentality. This increase in money and gang involvement brings a harder and more violent life for the youth of America. This growth of gangs and their drug usage has been implicated in the increasing violence of school youths. Experts have also said that most violent conflicts among school-age children can be traced back to long-simmering disputes. Carrying guns and other weapons around schools have become a more popular way to deal with these disputes all around the world. Adolescents tend to think that carrying guns around school with them will make them cool or give them power over others. Many believe that guns offer an easy way to settle these disputes. They are wrong. The only power that a weapon gives them is to create hate, suffering, and more sorrow than there was before hand. More people are carrying guns around today's schools. Many are getting caught and having the weapons taken away from them. Since schools have implemented metal detectors, scanners, video cameras, and security guards, they have cut down the rate of having handguns in schools by over fifty percent. Security experts have reported that there is no evidence that a metal detector will solve the problem of violence in schools. What metal detectors and other security measures do is to offer a highly visible symbol to the community. Even with all these security measures implemented into schools there are still a variety of ways that weapons can be brought in, such as through side windows and side entrances if there are minimal security devices at these doors. In conclusion, the solution to this problem should start in the home. The home environment is the most influential part of an adolescent's life. The parents should take the time to try to understand their children. This is very laborious to accomplish because adolescence is a very difficult time during the growth process. If a student is found to be struggling or going through a rough time, the student should have meetings with the school officials and the parents. By doing this, many problems that arouse can be eliminated before the problem blows up and many innocent people are damaged for life. Social Issues

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Ryanair Competitor Analysis Essays

Ryanair Competitor Analysis Essays Ryanair Competitor Analysis Paper Ryanair Competitor Analysis Paper The firms within the market engage in price wars where they cut prices to grab a larger market share. The firms maintain their customers loyalty by offering the low air fares and brand themselves through advertising. Some customers may stick to an airline provider for some reasons such as convenience, flexibility and brand loyalty. Therefore, when another firm sells at a higher price, it doesnt mean that the customer will switch airlines. However, it also isnt mean that the customers wont switch because are no restrictions or switching costs involved. A factor which may cause customers to switch is when the price difference is too high to tolerate. In this market there is a significant barrier to entry because of the high set up cost. It is also difficult to penetrate the market because of the 3 major firms which accounts for a huge market share. The LLC market also shows some characteristics of monopolistic competition because of there are many other LLC airlines. There are also no legal barriers to entry because there are legal restrictions to enter the market. Moreover, the governments show that they want to encourage competition in this industry when the Irish government rejected a takeover of Are Lingua by Ryan in 2009 (Reuters). Conduct Ryan conducts its business by cutting costs and lowering air fare prices. The company cuts cost through many ways such as using secondary airports, reducing the weight of their airplanes, reducing staff costs, removing bookings through travel agents and removing in-flight meals. The company commits to the basic service to their customer which is flying them from one place to another without delays. Any ore than that, the customers will be charged. Ryan charges the customers for various things such as in-flight meals, payment handling fees, wheelchair usage and online check-in (BBC 2009). The company also charges their staffs for training and interview sessions to reduce staff costs (Creator 2005). Since Ryan aims to provide the lowest air fare prices, they maximize airplanes capacity by removing business class and first class space. There are no pricing agreements arranged between other LLC operators, therefore, the prices of tickets varies. Non-price competition also exists in the LLC market.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Pronunciation of Words With Weak and Strong Forms

Pronunciation of Words With Weak and Strong Forms English is a stress-time language which means that some words are stressed and others are not when speaking. Generally, content words such as nouns and principal verbs are stressed, while structure words such as articles, helping verbs, etc. are not.   The Structure of Words A number of structure words have both weak and strong pronunciation. As a rule, the structure will take the weak pronunciation which means that the vowel becomes muted. For example, take a look at these sentences: I can play piano.Tom is from New England. Here are these two sentences with accented words in italics. Mary can play piano.Tom is from Chicago. Can, and from and is are unaccented and the vowel is very weak. This weak vowel sound is often referred to as a schwa. In the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) the schwa is represented as an upside-down e. It is, however, also possible to use these words with a strong form. Take a look at the same structure words, but used with strong pronunciation: You CANT  play tennis. - Yes, I CAN.Where is Tom FROM? In these two sentences, the placement at the end of the sentence calls for the strong pronunciation of the word. In other cases, the usually unaccented word becomes accented as a means of stressing that something is contrary to what is understood by others. Look at these two sentences in a dialogue. You arent interested in coming next week, are you?Yes, I AM interested in coming! Try the following exercise to practice both the weak and strong form.  Write two sentences: One sentence using the weak form, and one using the strong form. Try practicing these sentences taking care to quickly glide over the vowel in the weak form, or pronouncing the vowel or diphthong sound firmly in the strong form. Here are a few examples: Ive heard you have a company in the city. No, I work FOR a company in the city.What are you looking for? She is our sister.OUR sister is so talented! Practice Activity Decide how the word indicated would change the meaning in the following sentences when using the strong form. Practice saying each sentence aloud alternating between weak and strong forms. Do you notice how the meaning changes through stress? I am an English teacher in Portland, Oregon. - strong amI am an English teacher from Portland, Oregon. - strong fromHe said that she should see a doctor. - strong shouldThey were able to find a job despite the difficult market. - strong wereDo you know where he comes from? - strong doIll give the assignment to them. - strong themShes one of our most valued students. - strong ourId like Tom and Andy to come to the party. - strong and Answers I AM an English teacher ... Its true even though you dont believe it..... teacher FROM Portland, Oregon. Thats my home city, but not necessarily where I live and teach now.  ... that she SHOULD see a doctor. Its my advice, not an obligation.They WERE able to find a job ... It was possible for them though you think not.DO you know where ... Do you know the answer to this question or not?... the assignment to THEM. Not you, the others.Shes one of OUR most valued students. She is one of us, not of you or them.... Tom AND Andy ... Not only Tom, dont forget Andy. Here are some of the most common words that have weak/strong pronunciations. Generally speaking, use the week form (schwa) pronunciation of these words unless they are stressed by coming at the end of a sentence or due to unnatural stress made to facilitate understanding.   Common Weak and Strong Words a / am / an / and / are / as / atbe / been / butcan / coulddo / doesfor / fromhad / has / have / he / her / him / hisismustnotof / ourshall / she / should / somethan / that / the / them / there / touswas / we / were / who / would / willyou / your

Saturday, February 15, 2020

The Utilitarian View of Divorce Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The Utilitarian View of Divorce - Essay Example These parties include the spouses, the children, the families, and the state. A settlement may be reached based on utilitarian individualism, a decision based on the self-interest of the spouses. It may also be reached through the process of utilitarian republicanism, an outcome based on what is best for the public, or the biblical traditions of morality. In fact, the outcome of a divorce, and the subsequent settlement agreements, will be a mixture of multiple ethical models. While the decision to get a divorce has moved farther towards utilitarian individualist attitudes, the outcome is still heavily influenced by civic republicanism and biblical traditions. The divorce process has traditionally been monitored and totally controlled by social institutions outside the interested family. Churches discouraged divorce through the threat of excommunication and damnation. The state regulated divorce through a series of laws and courts designed not only to protect everyone's interest and serve justice, but to minimize the impact on society. The state took the utilitarian stand that the outcome of a divorce needs to produce the greatest public good possible. Before the recent innovation of no-fault divorce and private spousal agreements, "Divorce was granted only after an official inquiry by a judge, who had to determine whether "appropriate grounds"-very narrowly defined in terms of marital offenses-existed. When a divorce was granted, the state asserted broad authority to structure the economic relationship of the spouses and to maintain regulatory jurisdiction over the children and their relationship to the parents" (Mnookin and Kornhauser 9 53). Today, liberalized divorce laws and private divorce agreements have moved the desirable outcome of a divorce from the public good and into the private good. Bellah's contention that we are moving further into a utilitarian society, at a social cost (in this case divorce), is evidenced by the move from a concern for the public good, as dictated by the courts, to the private happiness sought through today's easy path to divorce. When a spouse, or a couple, make the decision to get divorced the decision is made based on the self-interest of one or both parties. Without a utilitarian attitude, couples may be more prone to stay together out of concern for their children and the health of the family unit. They may subscribe to behaviors that they may find disagreeable or burdensome. John Stuart Mill defined utilitarianism as the Happiness Principle which "holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain, and the privation of pleasure" (15). Happiness, and the absence of pain, are the moral standards by which utilitarianism makes its choice. Staying in a painful marriage may be made by other moral systems, but utilitarianism would endure it only if the happiness and stability of the family brought a greater reward to the injured spouse than the act o f divorce. While divorce in the past was highly stigmatized, today it is commonplace. The social stigmatization of staying single has also been reduced and "Divorce as a solution to an unhappy marriage, even a marriage with young children, is far more acceptable today than ever before" (Bellah et al. 90). Our